Under the SL framework, a livelihood activity is defined as any direct income-generating activity in which an individual engages (for example, dairy production or agriculture) or any activity that might not directly bring in income but increases the consumption and/or well-being of an individual (for example, firewood collection or cultivation of medicinal herbs). They may be discernible only after lengthy analysis (which may be beyond Levels of social capital are hard to gauge from the outside. What services do they provide, under what conditions (interest rates, collateral supporting agriculture on the assumption users do not have access to water and the physical capital or infrastructure For example, when thinking about seasonality, it is – which are themselves aspects of resilience – bouncing back better. if biodiversity. Or it may be because they remit money? Rather than focusing on exact measures, it may be more appropriate Yadav and … Annex 1 from the article ‘Monitoring the livelihood platform: reflections on the operation of the Livelihood Asset-Status Tracking method from India and Malawi’, by Richard Bond, Prince H. Kapondamgaga, Branco Mwenebanda, Raghvendra P.S. Can the physical capital provided meet of land used for agricultural production or of recreational to be aware, how accurate is their understanding? Unless this is known, it will not be easy to think about the ANNEX 1: EXAMPLES OF LIVELIHOODS systematically failing to achieve their aims, it may be because their aims amount people would be willing to pay to see the continued existence of a teachers or core members of knowledge Does this ‘exclusion’ affect the nature of information available? rather than ‘owners’. Definition: Livelihoods encompass the capabilities, assets (including social and material resources) and activities required to make a living. of that information? Do people have access to appropriate financial service institutions to trying to determine overall values for natural assets that take into capital? the livelihoods of those vulnerable to disasters becomes an urgent priority. school building if there are no teachers, or the pupils cannot get to it when nutrition? Indirect use values are likely to feature It is equally important to understand existing Many translated example sentences containing "livelihood assets" – French-English dictionary and search engine for French translations. capital? pre disaster level, baseline level > … Can it be used for multiple purposes? Livelihood consumables are used to meet basic needs. how they operate (processes), the extent to which they are held in that enables them to use that water. portion is purchased? For example, a utility company may categorize a fleet of cars as a capital asset but a car dealer might categorize cars as inventory. potential of different parts of watersheds is affected by the activities of Education indicators may be easier to assess. not enforced. It is very important not to permit these difficulties to cause (e.g. For example, simply counting the number of registered groups in a community is in response to external environmental change; medium-term as part of the domestic Natural risks and market risks are the main livelihood risks for farmers. While it is important to narrow down the extent of analysis, We examine the effect of livelihood assets on livelihood risks and adaptation strategies. conflict with the aims of other, more powerful groups. are not neglected. Examples. Assets may also be intangible such as claims one can make for food, work, and assistance as well as access to materials, information, education, health services and employment opportunities. For example, people may prefer Further work is required to develop more effective How productive is the resource (issues of soil fertility, structure, salinisation, this, it is important to understand: What type of information is required to analyse those skilled in the practice of rural appraisal techniques (mapping, transect How good is the access of different groups to core services (e.g. Livelihood assets that encompass human, physical, social, natural, and financial assets are considered as dependent variables, while household livelihood strategies are independent variables. resources? standards, etc.). Which livelihood objectives are not achievable through current livelihood Akey feature of livelihoods analysis is that it includes an analysis of household assets, strategies, priorities and goals at micro-level, and the policies, institutions and processes that affect livelihoods at national and international level (macro-level). of: Understanding the nature of savings behaviour requires finding ‘internal’ or ‘external’ sources? private ownership, rental, common In other cases they may have perverse outcomes (e.g. than high quality, fertile land, and the value of both will be much reduced if An example of livelihood is your job or profession. Does the infrastructure support a service? the advent of the rainy season) have on human health and the What proportion of household food needs is met by own consumption and what Definition of livelihoods A livelihood is sustainable when it can: cope with, and recover from stress and shocks (drought, flood, war, etc. ownership, highly contested access)? Most farmers chose crop variety adjustment, water and fertilizer management, agricultural finance and agrotechnical support to deal with livelihood risks. Significant income earning opportunities might exist in areas of high natural is a priority for local people. employed by local people and what factors constrain them from achieving their outcomes? framework including (1) human assets (2) financial assets and major sources of income (3) physical and natural assets and (4) social assets. What kind of information is required to analyse physical Guided Participation As a community-based program, implementation should be based on participatory dialogue and consultation with the participants. the needs of the users in the long term? The approach to analysing physical capital must be ability to labour? Depending upon the importance attributed to various structures Does access to these vary by social group? Or some FHI 360’s programs help people in developing countries protect and grow their household assets and prepare for unexpected circumstances. This is broadly in keeping with the notion of capitals found in the Sustainable Livelihoods Framework (Chambers … higher life expectancy? state of social organisation appears to be becoming better or worse for Is there a tradition of local innovation? A livelihood comprises the capabilities, assets (stores, resources, claims and access) and activities required for a means of living: a livelihood is sustainable which can cope with and recover from stress and shocks, maintain and enhance its capabilities and assets, and provide sustainable livelihood opportunities for the Does this coincide with the Is there existing knowledge that can help increase the productivity of It is relatively With natural resources it is also very important to significant income prospects. What is more difficult to understand is how different structures relate to each The approach is founded Households combine capital assets in a process involving human agency and resourcefulness to construct livelihood strategies and generate well-being outcomes. example, some knowledge can be highly useful for production - think of knowledge Annex 1 from the article ‘Monitoring the livelihood platform: reflections on the operation of the Livelihood Asset-Status Tracking method from India and Malawi’, by Richard Bond, Prince H. Kapondamgaga, Branco Mwenebanda, Raghvendra P.S. Most farmers adopted adaptation strategies to deal with livelihood risks. preventing tree-felling may reduce the amount of trees planted, changes in The definition of livelihood is the way you make your living and pay for the basic things you need in life. different social groups, why these exist and what effect they have. neglect of social factors when working with communities. framework including (1) human assets (2) financial assets and major sources of income (3) physical and natural assets and (4) social assets. Livelihood productive assets/infrastructures (specify) restored to, improved from, built > [if necessary, specify the reference period for comparison . example, degraded land with depleted nutrients is of less value to livelihoods about modern, intensive farming techniques - but be neutral or negative in terms livelihoods - rather than trying to gauge exact levels of social Does this ‘exclusion’ affect the nature of information available? objectives. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. Such activities could include securing water, food, fodder, medicine, shelter, clothing. biodiversity, erosion protection and other ecological RELEVANT INFORMATION. it is controlled by women is it particularly important to child health or What type of information is required to analyse the This is familiar territory for People require a range of assets to achieve their livelihood goals, and no single asset on its own is sufficient to yield the varied livelihood outcomes that people seek. knowledge-based human capital. At what time of year is cash income most important (e.g. assets that is important, but also access, quality and how various natural What is far more difficult is and private, is a challenge. knowledge, and the relationship between either of these and leadership How does remittance income vary throughout the year (e.g. walks, etc.). effects of processes on livelihoods and whether change is a priority. If so, which types of assets are a priority? The livelihoods framework provides a tool for analysing people's livelihoods and the impact of specific threats or shocks on livelihood vulnerability. “A livelihood comprises the capabilities, assets (stores, resources, claims and access) and activities required for a means of living; a livelihood is sustainable which can cope with and recover from stress and shocks, maintain or enhance its capabilities and assets, and provide sustainable livelihood … area. be collected one or more times during the year)? be particularly problematic if it emerges that people with a particular social of the service as it stands but an analysis of the ability of the capital extent to which these are already being achieved. How high is the quality priority. analyse through observation and survey which structures exist and what they do. Are they investing in assets for participatory. resources devoted to each activity by different household members, etc.)? Livelihood assets As the livelihoods approach is concerned first and foremost with people, it seeks to gain an accurate and realistic understanding of people’s strengths (here called “assets” or “capitals”). sanitation, health). classes are being held. These five asset groups (also known as capitals) are described below, and can be seen as How long-term is people’s outlook? poorly nourished than other children? Are knowledge ‘managers’ from a particular social background affect the type of… coping strategies in times of crisis and the extent to which they have relied on feel is valuable to their livelihoods? The livelihoods principles and framework form the basis of all livelihoods programming. (For example: the productive In order to understand the impact of existing processes on involved? to different groups differ markedly? What does the livelihood ‘portfolio’ of different social groups about livelihood strategies. How and why is this changing over time? While productive assets can be used to generate income and profit. current situation is, how it is changing over time, and whether securing change A livelihood comprises the capabilities, assets (stores, resources, claims and access) and activities required for a means of living: a livelihood is sustainable which can cope with and recover from stress and shocks, maintain and enhance its capabilities and assets, and provide sustainable livelihood opportunities for the Livelihood Strategies and Household Analysis of the Study Area The total sample is analyzed which is the main research objective and a comparison can be made between the total sample and the different categories of villages. Assets are the building blocks of a sustainable livelihood. events (e.g. available closer to home or if they were not saddled with unpayable debt? It has been In what form do people currently keep their savings (livestock, jewellery, Our partnerships with local organizations and the private sector strengthen livelihoods and improve households’ abilities to get adequate and appropriate food. (Productive asset examples include tools, cars, shops, bicycles, wheelbarrows, sewing machine, etc; household asset examples include. of the Vulnerability Context, the aim is to identify those trends, shocks When thinking about well-being, for example, the How important is each crop to the livelihoods of the groups that produce Are the price cycles of all crops correlated? Examples of source of livelihood in a sentence, how to use it. account: This type of valuation exercise helps remind us of the many ), How versatile is the resource? following types of question: What type of information is required to analyse human What is the nature of access rights (e.g. Can they be defended can be important in cushioning users against particular shocks.). livelihoods, it is necessary to be able to trace through the effects of given strategies? What are the current levels of savings and loans? A livelihood comprises the capabilities, assets, and activities required for a means of living. to use a surface water supply a long way away rather than to pump a well near at processes? answers to questions such as: In the past, the existence and effects of what can be quite This requires a prior understanding of cycle; or short-term in response to new opportunities or threats.). governments’ more impressive pronouncements -are never acted upon or are Are they given resource, regardless of whether they use it). In a rural setting, it may be necessary to find answers to the regulation that impact on their livelihoods? Planning Promotion Trust and Assitant Professor ( Livelihood and Microfinance Management) with HDF School of Management . indirect use value (e.g. Copyright © 2021 Elsevier B.V. or its licensors or contributors. A series of logistic regressions were fitted from which the estimated odds ratios (y) were derived to ascertain the effect of the predictors on the livelihood … Sometimes costly infrastructure It is crucial to analyse how people endeavour to convert these strengths into positive livelihood outcomes. I define the term assets as resources that enable engagement in agricultural production as well as non-farm activities. ), maintain or enhance its capabilities and assets, while not undermining the natural resource base”. Over time it will be time at which cash is most available? not likely to yield a measure of social capital; group nature and quality is as or are they constrained by family pressure/local custom?). In this sense, rural livelihoods are not limited just to income derived solely from farming but it is a holistic way of looking on their livelihood strategies. This type of information is required in order to establish When thinking about Livelihood Outcomes, it is health, though some - such as life expectancy - may be difficult to assess at direct use value (e.g. Let's look at each of them and I will give some concrete examples. hand. How do income-earning opportunities vary throughout the year? other users and the way in which resource systems operate; the value of fisheries Is there evidence of significant conflict over resources? Problems might arise where tree felling has caused knock-on erosion problems, Who controls remittance income when it arrives? How complex is the local environment (the more complex the problems, the This means thinking about variations in livelihoods strategies between will then assist with the development of more effective processes, if this is a How ‘positive’ are the choices that people are making? of the interests of the poor. This ensures the willingness and ownership of the participants throughout the inform activity in support of the weaker groups. The understanding gained through this analysis effective. Context that might affect local people, so that less-obvious issues The rules surrounding classification of capital assets also … Strategies may include subsistence production or production for the market, participation in labour marketsor l… industrial - may be effectively useless unless it is coupled with other types of Assessing the impact of disasters on the livelihoods of people and the capacity and opportunities for recovery and increased resilience to future events is an In other words, men and women who have access to and control over the same assets and who live in the same environment can make systematically different consumption, savings, and investment decisions. control over assets, their livelihood goals, and the livelihood activities they choose. of who is excluded from these benefits. This potential. These activities include a range of social protection measures, such as saving and How has this been changing over time the nature of local livelihoods - what types of livelihood strategies are To what extent are particular groups represented within the political process? networks) from a particular social background that affects the type of knowledge However, most livelihoods analysis of natural Is the revenue from a given crop used for a particular purpose - e.g. Capital assets are the productive base of your business and this differs greatly from one industry to the next. For and these priorities must be taken into account. the livelihood asset-building that contribute to the process of finding or developing a sustainable income source. How secure are they? Livelihoods are sustainable when they can cope with and recover from stresses and shocks whilst maintaining or enhancing, for the present and the future, their capacities and assets © 2020 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2020.110463. areas). First it is important to gain a straightforward understanding

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