This is how it was explained in a letter to US Army Colonel R. B. Mason of Ft. Leavenworth: The citizens of Daviess, Carroll, and some other counties have raised mob after mob for the last two months for the purpose of driving a group of mormons from those counties and from the State. [106], General Clark viewed Executive Order 44 as having been fulfilled by the agreement of the Mormons to evacuate the state the following spring. religious persecution on the U.S. frontier. [57], Even Missourians who had been friendly to the Mormons were not spared. Possibly playing on Rigdon's July 4 sermon that talked of a "war of extermination", Boggs issued Missouri Executive Order 44, also known as the "Extermination Order", on October 27, which stated that "the Mormons must be treated as enemies, and must be exterminated or driven from the State if necessary for the public peace..."[76] The Extermination Order was finally rescinded on June 25, 1976, by Governor Christopher Samuel "Kit" Bond.[77][78]. A committee sent to De Witt ordered the Latter-day Saints to leave. By the fall of that same year these tensions escalated into open conflict, culminating in the looting and burning of several Mormon farms and homes, the sacking and burning of Gallatin by the "Danites", and the taking of hostages by Cpt. We, therefore agree (that after timely warning, and receiving an adequate compensation for what little property they cannot take with them, they refuse to leave us in peace, as they found us—we agree to use such means as may be sufficient to remove them, and to that and we each pledge to each other our bodily powers, our lives, fortunes and sacred honors. These documents provide a detailed account of Mormon persecution in Missouri as recorded by those who suffered through the experience. We will meet at the courthouse, at the town of Independence, on Saturday next, the 20th inst., [July], to consult on subsequent movements. Peace officers, militia leaders, ministers, and merchants joined the mobs. [9], The Mormons had been given a county of their own (Caldwell County) in 1836, following their expulsion from Jackson County in 1833. Russel Hicks, Deputy County Clerk [71] According to one Mormon witness, the deaths "threw a gloom over the whole place".[72]. On the Mormon side, Gideon Carter was killed in the battle and nine other Mormons were wounded, including Patten, who soon after died from his wounds. [50] Boggs, however, ignored this plea and continued to wait as events unravelled. [74], While the State Militia gathered, Missouri unorganized Militia continued to act on their own, driving Mormons inward to Far West and Adam-ondi-Ahman. Even people who otherwise would have had no sympathy for the Mormons were appalled by Boggs's Executive Order and the treatment of the Mormons by the mobs. Cummins, Indian agent I will not obey your order. "[62] Some Latter-day Saints claimed that some of the Missourians burned their own homes in order to blame the Mormons. The order was issued in the aftermath of the Battle of Crooked River, a clash between Mormons and a unit of the Missouri State Militia in northern Ray County, Missouri, during the 1838 Mormon War. Smith's followers, commonly known as Mormons, began to settle in Jackson County in 1831 to "build up" the city of Zion. Hyrum Smith, Brigham Young, and other leaders left at Far West warned the veterans of Crooked River to flee. They moved into a blacksmith shop, which they hoped to use as a makeshift defensive fortification. Missouri Executive Order Number 44 reads as follows: Sir: Since the order of this morning to you, directing you to cause four hundred mounted men to be raised within your division, I have received by Amos Reese, Esq., of Ray county, and Wiley C. Williams, Esq., one of my aids [sic], information of the most appalling character, which entirely changes the face of things, and places the Mormons in the attitude of an open and avowed defiance of the laws, and of having made war upon the people of this state. "[48][49], On October 9, A C Caldwell returned to De Witt to report that the Governor's response was that the "quarrel was between the Mormons and the mob" and that they should fight it out.[48]. Your orders are, therefore, to hasten your operation with all possible speed. [24] The Missouri legislature deferred discussion of an appeal by Mormon leaders to rescind the decree. On May 6, 1842, Boggs was shot in the head at his home three blocks from Temple Lot. [83] The mob gave no quarter. It is the order of the Governor that you should all be exterminated; and by God you will be. The Mormons divided into three columns led by David W. Patten, Charles C. Rich, and James Durphee. Judge Josiah Morin and Samuel McBrier, both considered friendly to the Mormons, both fled Daviess County after being threatened. Olmstead, M.D. On June 19, the dissenters and their families fled to neighboring counties where their complaints fanned anti-Mormon sentiment. Though Clark had offered to allow the Mormons to remain in Missouri until the following spring, they decided to leave right away; according to one account, most had departed within ten days of Clark's speech. "Halt!" [26] After surviving an assassination attempt in 1842, Governor Boggs ultimately emigrated to California, where he died in relative obscurity in the Napa Valley in 1860. Although Mormons won the battle, they took heavier casualties than the Militia, only one of whom, Moses Rowland, was killed. We believed them deluded fanatics, or weak and designing knaves, and that they and their pretensions would soon pass away; but in this we were deceived. The Mormon-Missouri War (also called the Mormon War or the Missouri War) was an armed conflict between the Latter-day Saints and other citizens of northern Missouri in the fall of 1838. You need not expect any mercy, but extermination, for I am determined the governor's orders be executed. Most refugees made their way east to Illinois, where residents of the town of Quincy helped them. John Corrill, one of the Mormon leaders, remembered: Friendship began to be restored between (the Mormons) and their neighbors, the old prejudices were fast dying away, and they were doing well, until the summer of 1838[18], In 1837, problems at the church's headquarters in Kirtland, Ohio, centering on the Kirtland Safety Society bank, led to schism. Although he had refrained from stopping the illegal anti-Mormon siege of De Witt, he now mustered 2,500 State Militia to put down the Mormon insurrection against the state. [48], The besieged town resorted to butchering whatever loose livestock wandered into town in order to avoid starvation while waiting for the militia or the Governor to come to their aid. The Settlement of The Peculiar People in Jackson County. [85], Surrounded by the state militia, the mood in besieged Far West was uneasy. [114][115], LeSueur notes that, along with other setbacks, Boggs's mishandling of the Mormon conflict left him "politically impotent" by the end of his term.[116]. Executive Order 44 was issued during the 1838 Mormon War, which was caused by friction between the Mormons and their neighbors due to the economic and electoral growth of the Latter-day Saint community. A Militia under the command of Samuel Bogart was authorized by General Atchison to patrol the no-man's land between Ray and Caldwell Counties known as "Bunkham's Strip" – an unincorporated territory 6 miles (9.7 km) east to west and 1-mile (1.6 km) north to south. After most of the defenders in the blacksmith shop had been killed or mortally wounded, some of the Missourians entered to finish the work. One contemporary critic of the Mormons wrote: Mormonism is a monstrous evil; and the only place where it ever did or ever could shine, this side of the world of despair, is by the side of the Missouri mob. [13] In Daviess County, where Whigs and Democrats had been roughly evenly balanced, Mormon population reached a level where they could determine election results.[22]. In 1837, the Twelve Apostles left on missions to England, the first foreign mission of the Mormon Church. [37], At a meeting at Lyman Wight's home between leading Mormons and non-Mormons, both sides agreed not to protect anyone who had broken the law and to surrender all offenders to the authorities. On September 7, Smith and Lyman Wight appeared before Judge Austin A. General Clark cited Executive Order 44 soon after the Mormon settlers, mostly unarmed and poor immigrants, surrendered in November 1838, saying that violence would have been used had they chosen not to surrender. "[60], The Missourians evicted from their homes were no better prepared than the Mormon refugees had been. Citizens in Saline, Howard, Jackson, Chariton, Ray, and other nearby counties organized vigilance committees sympathetic to the Carroll County expulsion party. In his book, The 1838 Mormon War in Missouri, historian Stephen C. LeSueur notes that “non-Mormon land speculators could not hope to compete with the Mormons, who were purchasing large tracts of land with Church funds,” and that the huge immigration of Mormons to the area also “threatened to displace older towns as the political and commercial centers for their counties” (p.3). It did not matter whether or not the Mormons at [Haun's] mill had taken any part in the disturbance which had occurred [in Daviess County]; it was enough that they were Mormons. [11], Mormon petitions and lawsuits failed to bring any satisfaction: the non-Mormons in Jackson refused to allow the Mormons to return and reimbursement for confiscated and damaged property was refused. King, on charges of treason, murder, arson, burglary, robbery, larceny and perjury. He came just before the massacre and called the company together and they knelt in prayer. Mormon dissenters from Daviess County who had fled to Livingston County reportedly told Livingston County militia under Colonel Thomas Jennings that Mormons were gathering at Haun's Mill to mount a raid into Livingston County. Samuel Westin, justice of the peace Joseph Smith, returning to Far West from De Witt, was informed by General Doniphan of the deteriorating situation. [79], Most Mormons gathered to Far West and Adam-ondi-Ahman for protection. They believed that the Native Americans were descendants of Israelites and proselytized among them extensively. [4] All of the conflicts in the Mormon War occurred in a corridor 100 miles (160 km) to the east and northeast of Kansas City. "If you proceed any farther west," said the captain, "you will be instantly shot. News of the battle quickly spread and contributed to an all-out panic in northwestern Missouri. [55] The Missourians and their families, outnumbered by the Mormons, made their way to neighboring counties. It soon became clear that Missouri non-Mormons and Mormons could not live in the same area harmoniously. Previously, Governor Boggs had received word that Mormons had driven several citizens of Daviess County (north of Caldwell) from their homes. The militia promptly arrested Smith and the other leaders. [89][90] Colonel Hinkle stated that the Latter Day Saints would help bring to justice those Mormons who had violated the law, but he protested that the other terms were illegal and unconstitutional. In 1882, the Edmunds Act, which outlawed cohabitation with more than one woman, was passed. Public opinion has recoiled from a summary and forcible removal of our negro population;—much more likely will it be to revolt at the violent expulsion of two or three thousand souls, who have so many ties to connect them with us in a common brotherhood. The soldiers also turned their horses into our fields of corn.[98][99]. Although the Mormon leaders surrendered at Far West on November 1, Mormons (especially in outlying areas) continued to be subject to harassment and even forced ejection by citizens and Militia units. Doniphan refused to obey the order, replying: It is cold-blooded murder. [36], When about thirty Latter Day Saints approached the polling place, a Missourian named Dick Weldon declared that in Clay County the Mormons had not been allowed to vote, "no more than negroes". One woman died of exposure, the other (a woman named Jenson) died in childbirth. Of this their "Mormon" leaders were informed, and they said they would deal with any of their members who should again in like case offend. Two days before we arrived we were taken prisoners by an armed mob that had demanded every bit of ammunition and every weapon we had. Samuel C. Owens, County Clerk The tension … He's still alive, ain't he? After the inquiry, all but a few of the Mormon prisoners were released, but Joseph Smith, Sidney Rigdon, Lyman Wight, Caleb Baldwin, Hyrum Smith and Alexander McRae were held in the Liberty Jail in Liberty, Clay County on charges of treason against the state, murder, arson, burglary, robbery and larceny. One of the latest appeals was addressed by Smith at Nauvoo in December, 1843, to his native state, Vermont, calling on the Green Mountain boys, not only to assist him in attaining justice in Missouri, but also to humble and chastise or abase her for the disgraces she has brought upon constitutional liberty, until she atones for her sin.[17]. The Mormons were driven from Jackson County by a mob in 1833 and resettled in Clay County and other parts of northern Missouri. The Mormons believed—after a revelation recorded on June 6, 1831—that if they were righteous they would inherit the land held by others ("which is now the land of your enemies") in Missouri. Colonel Hinkle and Mormons of the Caldwell County militia were joined by elements of the Danite organization. The question of whether or not Mormons should be allowed to settle in the county was placed on the August 6 ballot; a heavy majority favored expulsion of the Mormons. commanded the leader of a band of well-mounted and well-armed mobocrats, who charged down upon them as they journeyed on their way. Every Mormon who had taken up arms was to sell his property to pay for the damages to Missourian property and for the muster of the state militia. Other Mormons, fearing similar retribution by the Missourians, gathered into Adam-ondi-Ahman for protection. On the first night of the march out of Carroll County, two Mormon women died. [26][28][29], On July 4, Rigdon gave an oration, which was characterized by Mormon historian Brigham Henry Roberts as a "'Declaration of Independence' from all mobs and persecutions". On June 25, 1976, Governor Kit Bond issued an executive order rescinding the Extermination Order, recognizing its legal invalidity and formally apologizing on behalf of the State of Missouri for the suffering it had caused the Mormons.[3]. On October 11, Mormon leaders agreed to abandon the settlement and move to Caldwell County. One historian notes that Governor Boggs was running for election against several violent men, all capable of the deed, and that there was no particular reason to suspect Rockwell of the crime. While Mormons were viewed as deluded or worse, many Missourians agreed with the sentiment expressed in the Southern Advocate: By what color of propriety a portion of the people of the State, can organize themselves into a body, independent of the civil power, and contravene the general laws of the land by preventing the free enjoyment of the right of citizenship to another portion of the people, we are at a loss to comprehend. King found that there was sufficient evidence to have the defendants appear before a grand jury on misdemeanor charges. Nearly every one was burned. [13], With the refusal of the Governor or Legislature to intervene, and having surrendered the bulk of their firearms, Mormons were left nearly defenseless to face the mob. [102][103], During a transfer to another prison in the spring of 1839, Smith escaped. Brother David Evans made a treaty with the mob that they would not molest us. He left in late 1837 for Far West, Missouri. [34], At the start of the brawl, Mormon John Butler let out a call, "Oh yes, you Danites, here is a job for us!" Agitation against the Latter Day Saints had become particularly fierce in the sparsely settled counties north and east of Caldwell County. James H. Flournoy, Postmaster [38], The Mormons also visited Sheriff William Morgan and several other leading Daviess County citizens, also forcing some of them to sign statements disavowing any ties to the vigilance committees. Anti-Mormonism is discrimination, persecution, hostility or prejudice directed against the Latter Day Saint movement, particularly The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS Church). [86] Other Latter Day Saint witnesses remembered that Smith said to "beg like a dog for peace". (Rockwood, Journal, 11 Nov. 1838, CHL.) However, Reynolds was unable to capture Rockwell. Traditionally, historians have cited a number of issues that led to the Missouri persecutions of the Latter-day Saints. Once they were established in a county of their own, a period of relative peace ensued. The Battle of Crooked River in late October led to Lilburn Boggs, the Governor of Missouri, issuing the Missouri Executive Order 44, ordering the Mormons to leave Missouri or be killed. [13], Forcefully deprived of their homes and property, the Latter-day Saints temporarily settled in the area around Jackson County, especially in Clay County. [7][8], Executive Order 44 is often referred to as the "Extermination Order" due to the phrasing used by Governor Boggs. [70], When the Mormons arrived on the scene, the State Militia unit was camped along Crooked River in the Bunkham's Strip just south of Caldwell County. A few miles more brought us to Haun's Mill, where that awful scene of murder was enacted. [57] Even Mormon leader Parley P Pratt conceded that some burnings had been done by Mormons. This refers to an agreement between the Mormons leaders and General Samuel Lucas, signed under duress, which compelled the Mormons to give up their leaders, their arms and all of their lands and property, and to then leave Missouri. Latter-day Saint Albert Perry Rockwood, writing from Far West, estimated on November 11 that about 30 Mormons had been killed. [20] Mormons felt that the compromise only excluded major settlements in Clay County and Ray County, not Daviess County and Carroll County.